This glossary of terms is created to provide general definitions for vocabulary found throughout the Checklist.
ABLEISM - A system that places value on people’s bodies and minds based on societally constructed ideas of normalcy, intelligence, excellence and productivity.
ACCESSIBLE DESIGN - A design process in which the needs of people with disabilities are specifically considered. Accessible Design ensures both “direct access” (i.e. unassisted) and “indirect access” meaning compatibility with a person’s assistive technology (e.g. computer screen readers).
ACCESSIBLE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – Technology that can be used by people with a wide range of abilities and disabilities. It incorporates the principles of universal design, whereby each user is able to interact with the technology in ways that work best for them.
ACCESSIBLE PARKING - Spaces must have access aisles. Access aisles provide a designated area for people who use wheelchairs or other mobility devices to get in and out of their car or van. The space signage must be clearly identified as reserved for use by a person with a disability by vertical signage that includes the international symbol of accessibility, that is visible from a passing vehicle.
ACCESSIBLE RESTROOMS - An ADA-compliant restroom is one that meets the Standards for Accessible Design in turning space, doors and provided elements. ADA standards apply to both public and employee restrooms. The ADA outlines how many single-user restrooms or stalls in multi-user restrooms must be compliant.
ACCESSIBILITY - Can be defined as the “ability to access” the functionality, and possible benefit, of some system or entity and is used to describe the degree to which a product such as a device, service, environment is accessible by as many people as possible.
ACCOMMODATION - Modification(s) or adjustment(s) made for an individual with a disability on an as-needed basis.
ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGY - Name for products which help people who cannot use original versions of products, primarily people with physical disabilities such as limitations to vision, hearing, and mobility.
ALT TEXT (alternative text) - Describes the appearance or function of an image on a page. Alt text is read aloud by screen readers used by blind or low vision users. It also displays in place of an image if it fails to load and is indexed by search engine bots to better understand the content of your page. Also known as "alt attributes," “alt descriptions," or technically incorrectly as "alt tags,” alt text used within an HTML code or in the appropriate field in your CMS (Content Management System.)
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE (ASL) - The dominant sign language of the Deaf community in the United States, in the English-speaking parts of Canada, and in parts of Mexico.
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE - ENGLISH INTERPRETERS - Sign language interpreters use their hands, fingers, and facial expression to translate spoken English into ASL and other signed languages. The purpose of providing an interpreter is to allow hearing, deaf and hard of hearing people equal access to information and interactions.
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) - Signed into law on July 26, 1990, the ADA is a wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits, under certain circumstances, discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, religion, sex, national origin, and other characteristics illegal.
ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY (AT) - Any item, piece of equipment, or product system that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. Examples include message boards, screen readers, refreshable Braille displays, keyboard and mouse modifications, and head pointers.
ASSISTIVE LISTENING DEVICE (ALD) - Any device, except hearing aids, which help a d/Deaf or hard of hearing person communicate more effectively through direct sound amplification or visual or vibrotactile alerts.
AUDIO DESCRIPTION (AD) - An additional audio track with narration of a film’s key visual elements by inserting visual descriptions into pauses in the film’s dialogue. An individual who is Blind or Low Vision listens to the AD tracks via personal Assistive Listening Devices.
CERTIFIED DEAF INTERPRETER (CDI) - A specialist who provides interpreting, translation, and transliteration services in American Sign Language and other visual and tactual communication forms used by individuals who are Deaf, hard-of-hearing, and DeafBlind. Holders of this certification are deaf or hard of hearing and have demonstrated knowledge and understanding of interpreting, deafness, the Deaf community, and Deaf culture.
CLOSED CAPTIONING (CC) - Closed Captions are visible to patrons that choose to see them when the movie is playing. For online screenings and video streaming services a viewer selects to see them via a [CC] button on the user interface. In-person, at the movie theater, the patron requests a device which will display film dialogue and sound elements on a small device like a OLED screen on a bendable support arm that sits directly in the patron’s field of view. CC exists as a separate file, which gives the viewer the ability to switch them on or off. Note: Captions are designed for viewers who cannot hear the audio in the video. Subtitles are designed for viewers who can hear but do not understand the language in the video.
COLOR CONTRAST - The difference in brightness between foreground and background colors. For accessibility purposes, aim for a 4.5:1 ratio between the foreground color (e.g. text, links, etc.) and the background color.
COMMUNICATION ACCESS REAL-TIME TRANSLATION (CART) - The process of translating spoken word into written text for persons who may be Deaf, hard of hearing, learners of English as a second language, etc. This process is also known as captioning. ID: Film Event Accessibility Working group logo. The letters FEAW in black with an orange line above and below the letters
COMPANION SEATING - A seat within an auditorium, which is affixed to the auditorium floor, and which is immediately adjacent to a wheelchair space. Companion seats are reserved for guests who accompany individuals purchasing wheelchair accessible tickets.
COMPLIANT - The structured observance of legal regulations to which companies are subject
DESIGNATED AISLE SEATS - At least 5% of Aisle Seats must have folding or retractable armrests. These seats are intended for use by individuals who have difficulty walking. These designated aisle seats must be located closest to accessible routes and labeled with approved insignia.
DISABILITY JUSTICE - Centralizes on the needs and experiences of folks experiencing intersectional oppression, such as disabled people of color, immigrants with disabilities, queers with disabilities, trans and gender non-conforming people with disabilities, people with disabilities who are houseless, people with disabilities who are incarcerated, people with disabilities who have had their ancestral lands stolen, amongst others.
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION - Communication with people with disabilities must be as effective as communication with others.
EQUITABLE - The fair and just treatment of all members of a community by giving access to everyone along the continuum of human ability and experience. Whereas ‘Equality’ means each individual or group of people is given the same resources or opportunities, ‘Equity’ recognizes that each person has different circumstances and allocates the exact resources and opportunities needed to reach an equal outcome.
HEARING LOOPS - A hearing loop (sometimes called an audio induction loop) is a special type of sound system for use by people with hearing aids. The hearing loop provides a magnetic, wireless signal that is picked up by the hearing aid when it is set to 'T' (Telecoil) setting.
IDENTITY-FIRST LANGUAGE - Language that puts a person's disability identity before the person. For example, 'disabled person'. Many people with disabilities prefer to use identity-first language because they see their disability as a key part of their identity. ID: Film Event Accessibility Working group logo. The letters FEAW in black with an orange line above and below the letters IMMUNOCOMPROMISED - A weakened immune system affecting the ability to fight off infections and diseases. This state can be either permanent or temporary.
OTHER POWER-DRIVEN MOBILITY DEVICE (OPMD) – An OPDMD is any mobility device powered by batteries, fuel, or other engines that is used by individuals with mobility disabilities for the purpose of locomotion, whether or not it was designed primarily for use by individuals with mobility disabilities. OPDMDs may include electronic personal assistance mobility devices, such as the Segway ® Personal Transporter (PT), or any mobility device that is not a wheelchair and is designed to operate in areas without defined pedestrian routes.
OPEN CAPTIONS (OC) - Content that has the captions showing during the screening for anyone watching. Text is permanently visible and appears on screen with the image in which it will be visible for all in the audience, therefore viewers do not need to switch anything on to access them. Note: Captions are designed for viewers who cannot hear the audio in the video. Subtitles are designed for viewers who can hear but do not understand the language in the video.
PERSON-FIRST LANGUAGE - Language that places the focus on the person, not the disability. For example, “an individual with epilepsy” is a person-focused phrase, while “an epileptic person” is disability- focused. This shift in language is intended to eliminate labeling and instead view individuals with disabilities with respect.
PHOTOSENSITIVE EPILEPSY - When seizures are triggered by flashing lights or contrasting light and dark patterns. These seizures may have a variety of symptoms, including lightheadedness, altered vision, eye or face twitching, jerking or shaking of arms or legs, disorientation, confusion, or momentary loss of awareness.
PHOTOSENSITIVE WARNING - Caution warnings of flashing or patterned effects can make people with or without epilepsy feel disorientated, uncomfortable or unwell.
PORTABLE DOCUMENT FORMAT (PDF) - An open file format created and controlled by Adobe Systems for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout document format. Unless properly tagged, these documents will be inaccessible to those with vision loss.
PROGRAM ACCESS - A public entity's services, programs, or activities, when viewed in their entirety, must be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.
PROTACTILE AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE (PTASL) - A language used by DeafBlind people using tactile channels. Unlike other sign languages, which are heavily reliant on visual information, protactile is oriented towards touch and is practiced on the body.
PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS - Private entities that own, operate, lease, or lease to places of public accommodation.
REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION - A modification or adjustment to a job, the work environment, or the way things usually are done that enables a qualified individual with a disability to enjoy an equal employment opportunity. For example:
REASONABLE MODIFICATION - A public entity must modify its policies, practice, or procedures to avoid discrimination unless the modification would fundamentally alter the nature of its service, program, or activity.
SCREEN READER - A form of assistive technology software application that renders text and image content as speech or braille output. Screen readers are used by people who (including but not limited to) are blind, have low vision, have a learning disability, etc.
SENSORY-FRIENDLY ROOMS - Designed to provide calm, focus, and comfort to people with sensory processing disabilities who may be hyper-sensitive to harsh lighting, strong odors, and loud music. ID: Film Event Accessibility Working group logo. The letters FEAW in black with an orange line above and below the letters
SENSORY-FRIENDLY SCREENING - Changes the sensory experience of the film in the theater but the film itself does not change. Not every theater will offer the same experience, however, you can typically expect for the house lights to be on and the soundtrack volume to be turned down. Sensory screenings are often a preference of individuals who have sensory sensitivities or experience sensory overload such as people with anxiety, autism, hearing loss, concussion, or post traumatic stress disorder.
SOCIAL MODEL OF DISABILITY - A way of viewing the world, developed by disabled people. The model says that people are disabled by barriers in society, not by their impairment or difference. The social model helps us recognize barriers that make life harder for disabled people
SUBTITLES - Common in non-English speaking films where text appears on screen with the image. Subtitles involve translating the film’s native language into alternate language. It typically does not translate any sound effects, background sounds, speaker distinction or music. Note: Captions are designed for viewers who cannot hear the audio in the video. Subtitles are designed for viewers who can hear but do not understand the language in the video.
SUPPORT SERVICE PROVIDER (SSP) - A specially trained individual who provides visual, environmental and social information at the direction of someone who is DeafBlind resulting in increased autonomy and access to the community. Also referred to as a Co-Navigator.
UNIVERSAL DESIGN (UD) - Also known as "inclusive design" and "design for all," this is an approach to the design of products, places, policies and services that can meet the needs of as many people as possible throughout their lifetime, regardless of age, ability, or situation.
VIEWER WARNINGS - Messaging that warns the viewers of what they are about to see as an opportunity to stop looking at it beforehand. Viewers are encouraged to “use discretion' or make their own judgment about watching the presentation/ movie. Content that might warrant a warning are photosensitivity triggers or topics such as sexual abuse, self-harm, violence, eating disorders, etc. They can take the form of an image, video clip, audio clip, or piece of text.
WHEELCHAIR ACCESSIBLE - Meets the most recent applicable standards of the American National Standards Institute for accessibility by persons with disabilities at the time of placement WHEELCHAIR RAMP - Ramps are sloped pathways used both inside and outside buildings used to provide access between vertical levels. Ramps provide an alternative to stairs for wheelchair users, people with mobility issues and people with strollers, bicycles and other wheeled items.
WHEELCHAIR SEATING / SPACES - A seating location designated for individuals with Mobility Disabilities that can be occupied by a person who is sitting in a wheelchair. Wheelchair Seating shall, in all, respects, comply with the Standards, except that Wheelchair Seating locations may be vacant spaces rather than fixed seating. WORLD
WIDE WEB CONSORTIUM (W3C) – An organization that develops interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web to its full potential. The W3C is a forum for information, commerce, communication, and collective understanding.